Objective: Associations between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and effect of treatment at the tissue levels are poorly understood. We investigated the scope of released extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolites as a consequence of tissue remodelling in patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) and tocilizumab (TCZ) compared to placebo.
Methods: Tissue metabolites from 387 RA patients treated with either TCZ (8 mg/kg) or MTX monotherapy (7.5-20 mg/kg) were measured at baseline and 8 weeks sera by validated ELISA assays. The levels of collagen biomarkers (C1M, C2M, C3M and C4M) together with C-reactive protein (CRP) and CRP metabolite (CRPM) were investigated. Baseline levels of biomarkers have been compared with 72 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Comparison between treatment and response groups were done by ANCOVA, Spearman's correlation and logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, BMI and disease duration.
Results: C1M and C3M were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by TCZ and C3M by MTX (P < 0.01) compared to placebo. C1M and C3M inhibition with TCZ was respectively 23% and 16% greater than that of MTX (P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001). C4M was inhibited by TCZ and MTX, but the effect of TCZ was 22% greater than MTX (P < 0.0001). TCZ and MTX had minimal effect on C2M levels. MTX had no effect on CRP and CRPM, whereas TCZ reduced their levels to 69% and 27% from baseline. Investigated biomarkers revealed a significant (P < 0.05) difference in biomarker profiles of MTX ACR50 treatment responders and non-responders. Change to week 8 in levels of C3M, C4M, CRP and CRPM in MTX patients correlated significantly (rho = 0.41 to 0.18, P < 0.0001 to 0.039) with change in disease activity (DAS28) at weeks 8, 16 and 24, whereas only CRP in TCZ patients (rho = 0.32 to 0.21, P < 0.0001 to 0.01).
Conclusion: Patients receiving TCZ treatment for 8 weeks had higher suppression of tissue remodelling and inflammatory biomarkers over patients treated with MTX. Measured biomarkers enabled for a discrimination of biomarker profiles of ACR50 treatment responding patients and identification of those who benefit at the early time point. Week 8 change in levels of C3M, C4M, CRP and CRPM significantly predicted clinical response to treatment and correlated with DAS28 at all time points.
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