Pharmacological treatment with dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonists (DACRAs) cause significant weight loss and improvement of glucose homeostasis. In this study, the maximally efficacious dose of the novel DACRA, KeyBiosciencePeptide (KBP)-066, was investigated. Two different rat models were used: high-fat diet (HFD)-fed male Sprague-Dawley rats and male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF, fa/fa) rats to determine the maximum weight loss and glucose homeostatic effect, respectively. One acute study and one chronic study was performed in HFD rats. Two chronic studies were performed in ZDF rats: a preventive and an interventive. All studies covered a dose range of 5, 50, and 500 µg/kg KBP-066 delivered by subcutaneous injection. Treatment with KBP-066 resulted in a significant weight reduction of 13%-16% and improved glucose tolerance in HFD rats, which was independent of dose concentration. Dosing with 50 and 500 µg/kg led to a transient but significant increase in blood glucose, both in the acute and the chronic study in HFD rats. All doses of KBP-066 significantly improved glucose homeostasis in ZDF rats, both in the preventive and interventive study. Moreover, dosing with 50 and 500 µg/kg preserved insulin secretion to a greater extent than 5 µg/kg when compared with ZDF vehicle rats. Taken together, these results show that maximum weight loss is achieved with 5 µg/kg, which is within the range of previously reported DACRA dosing, whereas increasing dosing concentration to 50 and 500 µg/kg may further improve preservation of insulin secretion compared with 5 µg/kg in diabetic ZDF rats. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Here we show that KeyBiosciencePeptide (KBP)-066 induces an equally potent body weight loss across a broad dose range in obese rats. However, higher dosing of KBP-066 may improve insulin action in diabetic rats both as preventive and interventive treatment.

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