KBP-042 is a synthetic peptide dual amylin- and calcitonin-receptor agonist (DACRA) developed to treat type 2 diabetes by inducing a significant weight loss while improving glucose homeostasis. In this study the aim was to compare two different formulations: An oral formulation (1mg/kg) to subcutaneous formulations of KBP-042 (2.5μg/kg, 5.0μg/kg and 7.5μg/kg) with comparable pharmacokinetic profiles. Furthermore to examine if differences in mode of action between the two different routes of administration in high-fat fed Sprague-Dawley rats were present. It was established that the subcutaneous administrations of KBP-042 were able to dose-dependently cause a significant weight-loss, reduce food intake, and improve glucose homeostasis without increasing insulin secretion, effects comparable to those observed with oral administration. At the same time, s.c. KBP-042 suppressed the inappropriate glucagon response better than the oral formulation. Furthermore, KBP-042 was found to reduce incretins GLP-1 and GIP and considerably, improve gastric emptying, and to alleviate leptin resistance, as well as insulin resistance. In conclusion, the subcutaneous route of administration was found to have the same beneficial effects on blood glucose homeostasis and weight loss as well as resistance towards important insulin and leptin, albeit with a markedly lower variation in both exposure and biological responses. These data support the application of subcutaneously delivered peptide for mechanistic studies, and highlight the potential of developing s.c. KBP-042 as a therapy for T2D.
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