There is an unmet need for high-quality liquid biomarkers that can safely and reproducibly predict the stage of fibrosis and the outcomes of chronic liver disease (CLD). The requirement for such markers has intensified because of the high global prevalence of diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In particular, there is a need for diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as predictive biomarkers that reflect the efficacy of interventions, as described by the BEST criteria (Biomarkers, EndpointS, and other Tools Resource). This review covers the various liver collagens, their functional role in tissue homeostasis and delineates the common nomenclature for biomarkers based on BEST criteria. It addresses the common confounders affecting serological biomarkers, and describes defined collagen epitope biomarkers that originate from the dynamic processes of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling during liver injury.
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