Inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD, is a chronic intestinal disorder caused by a dysfunctional immune system that mistakenly attacks intestinal tissues when fighting foreign pathogens, resulting in mucosal tissue destruction and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Inflammatory bowel diseases are commonly divided into Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are characterized by inflammation of the mucosa with increased protease activity, leading to increased remodeling of the extracellular matrix and increased deposition of collagen in the lamina propria and submucosa. Excessive collagen deposition in the intestinal mucosa and unresolved inflammation are the main causes of surgery in IBD patients due to inadequate response to treatment. Therefore, extracellular matrix markers are important for monitoring mucosal healing/intestinal healing and predicting response to treatment.
How many people have inflammatory bowel disease?
More than 7 million people are currently diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease, with a prevalence of approximately 0.3% worldwide. Risk factors also include age, genetics, smoking status, obesity and environmental factors.
How is inflammatory bowel disease treated?
There is no cure for IBD, but the symptoms and inflammation can be treated with immunosuppressants, steroids, or synthetic or biologic medications. The type of treatment depends on the severity of symptoms, the location of the disease, and the number of years with IBD.
How is inflammatory bowel disease diagnosed?
There is no single reference standard for diagnosing Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis is based on a combination of clinical, biochemical (CRP and fecal calprotectin), stool-based, endoscopic, imaging, and histologic studies.
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