Truncated tau appears to be specifically related to disease pathology and recent studies have shown the presence and elevation of several truncated tau species in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the relevance of truncated Tau measurements in blood is still being studied.

The aim of the current study was to assess the longitudinal associations between baseline levels of two novel blood biomarker candidates measuring truncated tau, Tau-A and Tau-C, and the risk of incident dementia and AD in elderly women.

Using solid phase competitive ELISA, two tau fragments were detected in serum of 5,309 women from the Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor study. The study was an observational, prospective study of Danish postmenopausal women. Subjects were followed with registry-linkage for up to 15 years (median follow-up time 13.7 years). Cox regression was used to assess the utility of the biomarker candidates in relation to dementia and AD.

High levels of Tau-A and Tau-C (above the median) in blood were associated with lower risk of dementia and AD (Tau-A: Dementia HR[95% CI] = 0.85[0.70-1.04]; AD 0.71[0.52-0.98] and Tau-C: Dementia 0.84[0.70-1.00]; AD 0.78[0.60-1.03]). Tau-C gave a very modest increase in the AUC in a 5-year prediction horizon as compared to a reference model with age and education, while a combination of the two did not improve their predictive capacity.

Measurement of tau in serum is feasible. The serological tau turnover profile may be related to the diagnosis and development of dementia and AD. The exact processing and profile in serum in relation to cognitive disorders remains to be further assessed to provide simple non-invasive tests to identify subjects with progressive cognitive disorders.