This study investigated the association between body composition and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in postmenopausal women. In a retrospective analysis we assessed data from 5704 postmenopausal women (age 70.7 ± 6.5 yrs.) who in 1999-2001 participated in The Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor study with body composition assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Outcomes were obtained from Danish Health Registries and body composition association to risk of AF was evaluated by univariable and multivariable Cox Hazard regression. 850 women developed AF after baseline. High lean body mass was associated with increased risk of AF in multivariable analyses, adjusting for body mass index (BMI), height or weight (adjusted for: BMI, hazard ratio (HR) 1.49, 95% Confidence Interval (1.22-1.80); height, HR 1.27 (1.03-1.56); weight, 1.33 (1.06-1.65)). Height and weight were associated with increased risk of AF in multivariable analyses adjusting for body composition measures. When adjusting for total lean mass, only height remained statistically significant (HR 1.34 (1.09-1.64)). In a cohort of elderly Caucasian women, high lean body mass, height and weight were associated with increased risk of AF and the variables remained significant after adjusting for age and other known risk factors of AF.